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Limitations of Willpower: Why We Need More Than Just Self-Control

We all know the drill: the endless lists, the early mornings we dread, the constant inner battle to resist temptation, that nagging voice in our heads: "Just push harder," it whispers. "One more workout, one more rejection letter, one more late night and you'll finally achieve your goals!" We rely on willpower, that internal grit, to get ourselves through challenges and achieve our dreams. But what if this constant striving is actually holding us back?

Picking up from earlier blog, about how we all act according to our prakriti/conditioning, Chapter 3, Verse 34 of the Gita [1], suggests a potential pitfall: being overly reliant on sheer willpower can be like "being swayed by attraction and repulsion for sense objects." In other words, constantly forcing ourselves against our natural inclinations might not be the most sustainable approach.

इंद्रियस्येन्द्रियस्यार्धे रागा द्वेषौ व्यवस्थितौ तयोर्ना वशं आगच्छेदतौ ह्यस्य परिपंथिनौ
Indriyasyendriyasyārthe rāga-dveṣhau vyavasthitau Tayoḥ na vaśhaṁ āgachchet tau hyasya paripanthinau


"The senses are naturally inclined to attraction and aversion towards sense objects. One should not be controlled by them, for they are the stumbling blocks on the path to self-realization."

This verse highlights the inherent challenges of relying solely on willpower to control our desires and impulses. The senses, by their very nature, are drawn to pleasurable experiences and repelled by unpleasant ones. Trying to force ourselves against these natural inclinations through sheer willpower can be a constant struggle, leading to frustration, exhaustion, and even setbacks.

The Gita suggests an alternative approach: understanding and aligning with our natural inclinations. The text even acknowledges the difficulty of overcoming ingrained tendencies, even for those well-versed in spiritual teachings. This resonates with modern psychology's exploration of the mind's dual-system model, as described in the seminal work Thinking, Fast and Slow by Nobel laureate Daniel Kahneman (2011). This model proposes that our minds operate on two levels: System 1, which is fast, intuitive, and emotional, and System 2, which is slower, more deliberative, and logical. Simply relying on willpower, associated with System 2, to control our desires fuelled by System 1 can be a recipe for struggle.

Image Credit: Daniel Kahneman

System 1 vs. System 2: The Internal Tug-of-War

Think of your mind as a battlefield where two distinct systems wage a constant battle for control. This concept, explored by Kahneman, proposes that our thoughts and actions are driven by two primary systems:

System 1: The Impulsive Autopilot

  • Fast and Automatic: System 1 is the quick and intuitive part of our mind. It operates on autopilot, processing information rapidly and generating instant judgments based on past experiences, emotions, and learned associations.

  • Habit-Driven: System 1 thrives on familiarity and defaults to ingrained habits. It's responsible for things like riding a bike, recognizing faces, or reacting instinctively to danger.

  • Emotional Influence: System 1 is heavily influenced by emotions. It can make snap decisions based on feelings like fear, excitement, or anger without engaging in critical thinking.

  • Alignment with Prakriti: The way System 1 operates aligns closely with our Prakriti, the fundamental nature shaped by our genetics and past experiences according to Swami Sarvapriyananda. Our natural inclinations, desires, and biases heavily influence how System 1 perceives and responds to the world.

System 2: The Deliberate Decision-Maker

  • Slow and Calculated: System 2 is the slower, more deliberate part of our mind. It's responsible for complex reasoning, logical analysis, and conscious decision-making.

  • Effortful Thinking: Unlike System 1's automatic operation, System 2 requires effort and focus. It's like the logical voice in your head that weighs pros and cons before making a choice.

  • Limited Capacity: System 2 has limited resources and can get easily overloaded. This can lead to decision fatigue and reliance on System 1's shortcuts.


System 1

System 2

Processing Speed

Fast & Automatic

Slow & Deliberate


Habitual & Emotional

Logical & Analytical


Prakriti (Natural Inclinations) & Emotions

Willpower & Values


Riding a bike, Snap judgments, Emotional decisions

Problem-solving, Critical thinking, Planning for the future

Related Brain Region

Amygdala (Emotions), Limbic System (Motivation)

Prefrontal Cortex (Thinking & Planning)



Captain steering the ship

Bhagavad Gita Connection


Aligning with Swadharma (through conscious effort of System 2)

The Willpower Struggle

The Gita's message about the limitations of willpower resonates with the System 1 vs. System 2 model. Relying solely on willpower (System 2) to control our desires (driven by System 1 and Prakriti) can be an uphill battle, not just mentally, but also metabolically.

The Energy Cost of Willpower

Recent research suggests that exerting willpower is an energy-intensive process. The brain, despite its relatively small size, consumes a significant portion of the body's glucose (blood sugar) for fuel. Studies indicate that acts of self-control deplete glucose levels, potentially explaining why relying solely on willpower can lead to fatigue and decision fatigue. This aligns with the Gita's observation that constantly striving against our natural inclinations can be unsustainable.

The Alternative: Aligning with Swadharma

The Gita offers an alternative – understanding and aligning with our Swadharma, our unique path of duty. This doesn't mean suppressing our desires, but rather channelling them in a constructive way. By identifying our natural talents and inclinations (Prakriti) and aligning them with our values and goals (influenced by System 2), we can leverage both systems for a more sustainable and fulfilling journey.

Think of it this way: Imagine trying to climb a mountain by sheer willpower, constantly pushing against gravity. The Gita suggests a different approach – finding a path that utilizes your natural strengths and inclinations (Prakriti), making the climb less strenuous and more enjoyable. This alignment with your Swadharma allows you to tap into a more sustainable source of motivation and energy, leading to greater success in the long run.

The Narrow Window of Opportunity and the Role of Buddhi

The Gita emphasizes the importance of awareness in managing our desires. Just like a wave building in the ocean, desires and emotions start small. This initial stage presents a narrow window of opportunity, as echoed by Kahneman. When thoughts and emotions are nascent, our "yes" or "no" holds significant weight. We can leverage our Buddhi, often translated as intellect or discriminating faculty, to intervene.

Buddhi represents our capacity for conscious awareness/intellect and wise decision-making. It's the part of us that can choose to engage System 2 (slow, deliberate thinking) and exert willpower to override the impulses of System 1 (fast, intuitive thinking). System 1, aligned with our Prakriti (natural inclinations), is where desires and emotional responses arise. However, with intellect and conscious effort (System 2), we can choose to act before these desires and emotions gain momentum and become difficult to control.

Vrittis: The Root of Our Impulses

The Gita uses the term Vritti to describe the mental fluctuations or thought waves that constantly arise in our minds. These vrittis can be positive (like inspiration or joy), negative (like anger or fear), or neutral (like sensory perceptions). They stem from our Prakriti (fundamental nature shaped by genetics and past experiences) and bombard our Buddhi (discriminating intellect) on a continuous basis, influencing our thoughts, emotions, and actions.

Image Credit: Vlad Bibek

The Neuroscience of Vrittis: From Neurons to Mental Noise

Modern neuroscience offers a fascinating perspective on the generation of vrittis. Our thoughts arise from complex interactions between billions of neurons in the brain. When a neuron is stimulated, it fires an electrical impulse that can trigger a cascade of activity in other neurons. These interconnected networks form the basis of our thoughts, memories, and perceptions.

  • The Role of Neurotransmitters:  Chemical messengers called neurotransmitters play a crucial role in transmitting signals between neurons. Dopamine, for instance, is associated with motivation and reward, while serotonin influences mood and well-being. The specific cocktail of neurotransmitters released in response to internal and external stimuli contributes to the nature (positive, negative, or neutral) of a vritti.

  • Brain Networks and Thought Patterns:  Different regions of the brain are specialized for various functions. The prefrontal cortex, for example, is involved in planning and decision-making, while the amygdala plays a key role in processing emotions. The interplay between these brain regions determines how vrittis are generated, interpreted, and ultimately influence our behavior.

Vrittis as Ripples on the Lake of Consciousness

Imagine a calm lake representing your Buddhi (discriminating intellect). Raindrops (vrittis) falling on the surface create ripples. Small ripples, like fleeting thoughts, are easier to ignore. But if left unchecked, vrittis can gain momentum, just like raindrops intensifying into a downpour. These stronger vrittis, fueled by emotions and ingrained habits (Prakriti), can create larger waves that disrupt the serenity of the lake, symbolizing the state of our consciousness.

The Importance of Nipping Vrittis in the Bud

It is important to catch our vrittis, the ripples of thought, at their source before they overwhelm our Buddhi. This aligns with the concept of the narrow window of opportunity. Gita states "Tayoḥ na vaśhaṁ āgachchet;" which translates to "you have the power to decide," underlining this crucial point. By cultivating a calm and meditative mind, we can observe our vrittis with detachment and choose how to respond.



Connection to Willpower

Buddhi (Intellect)

- Represents conscious awareness and wise decision-making. - Acts like the captain steering the ship. - Chooses to engage System 2 (slow, deliberate thinking) to exert willpower.

Crucial for effective willpower. - A clear and unclouded Buddhi can objectively evaluate situations and choose the course of action aligned with long-term goals (not just fleeting desires).

Vritti (Thoughts)

- Mental fluctuations or thought waves that constantly arise in the mind. - Can be positive, negative, or neutral. - Stem from our Prakriti and influence our emotions and actions. - Act like ripples on the lake of consciousness.

Can drain willpower if not managed. - Strong vrittis fueled by emotions and ingrained habits can over whelm our ability to exert willpower. - The narrow window of opportunity refers to the initial stage of a vritti when it's easier to intervene with Buddhi.

Prakriti (Conditioning/Nature)

- Our fundamental nature shaped by genetics and past experiences. - Influences our natural tendencies, desires, and emotional responses (System 1 thinking).

Sets the stage for vrittis. - Our Prakriti shapes the kind of vrittis that arise in our minds. - Understanding our Prakriti can help us anticipate vrittis and prepare our Buddhi to respond effectively.

The Corrupted Buddhi: When Willpower Fails

If we repeatedly indulge our vrittis, they can cloud our Buddhi (intellect). Instead of acting as an objective decision-maker, the Buddhi becomes hijacked by our cravings and aversions. It starts justifying impulsive choices, further diminishing our willpower.

Imagine a determined rider atop a mighty elephant. The rider represents our willpower, armed with the knowledge of what's "good" or the goals we set. The elephant, however, embodies our prakriti – our ingrained habits, desires, and emotional responses. Just as the elephant might be powerfully drawn towards tempting fruit, our prakriti can easily overpower our willpower, leading us to abandon our goals or make choices that contradict our conscious desires.

The Way Forward

The Bhagavad Gita, along with insights from modern psychology, offers a valuable framework for understanding the limitations of willpower. By cultivating awareness of our vrittis and strengthening our Buddhi through practices like meditation, we can expand the window of opportunity for conscious decision-making, which empowers us to make choices that align with our values.

In essence, Gita's message is not to suppress our desires, but to understand and harness them. better manage our vrittis to achieve peace and clarity of mind. Just like a calm lake reflects reality more accurately than a rippled surface, a mind free from the distraction of vrittis allows for clear thinking, wise decision-making, and a more fulfilling life.

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